History is the News: Washing off the Whitewash
Lash, Piapot, Billy Graham and the Three Stooges
First published February 1, 2016
The working on the research for this article becomes a noteworthy process in itself. The emotional impact is considerable. The magnitude to the picture is mind boggling. We wonder how Canadians will do with this information. The land theft, the residential schools, the genocide and the suffering were and are known and experienced by Indigenous people, often in a world apart. As in apartheid. Do your own homework.
A new edition of Adolph Hitler’s book, “Mein Kampf” was released in Germany in January, 2016. Controversial, yes but copies sold out immediately. Some Germans say the book should be studied in schools and taught by professionals to “immunize” children against right wing mentality. That sounds like someone trying to control history.
Let us clarify, in regard to the IR Indian Reports which are full of racist commentary. These must be studied by Canadians, both independently and in school curricula. An ongoing dialogue, conversation among people, is essential. Forget the Government. The Nazis got a lot of their ideas from Canada’s Indian Policy. Never forget that.
While the names, glowing biographies and even photos are available for the 19th century elite colonialists, few names of Indigenous leaders are brought down in the colonial record. Many descendants will know their own family history through ongoing oral histories and documents carefully kept in homes and offices. These game changing historical records have been used in ongoing land claims and are coming out for all to see and discuss today in universities and on the internet.
The Indigenous people who get named in the early IR’s are the ones who own property and are prospering according to colonial standards or they are criminals in the news. We had to dig deeper to find that, yes, there was and always has been a documented Indigenous Resistance to the well documented Fraud being perpetrated by the Crown and its Agents.
J.B. Lash – Front Lines Crown Agent
Jobs at Indian Affairs were normally patronage appointments with prolific nepotistic ties. J. B. Lash was no exception. There were many more like him. Quite often Indian Agents didn’t live as long as their relatives back east. After all, they were on the front lines. In the media of their day, Indian Agents were somewhat celebrity, their visits to towns being reported on.
Inspector Ebenezer McColl describes the duties of the Indian Agent in the 1891 IR:
“…the various duties incumbent upon them [Indian Agents] are annually increasing, such as visiting schools, examining quarterly returns from teachers, dispensing medicines to the sick, issuing rations to the destitute, giving instruction in agriculture, preventing trespasses on fishing and other reserves, making payments of annuities, obtaining statistical information preparing estimates for the next ensuing year, attending to the general correspondence of their respective agencies, etc…I am happy to inform you.. that it is very exceptional now when any irregularity is discovered in all their transactions…”
This is an old dirty trick, the ongoing policy of denial. If you don’t “discover” it, then it isn’t there.
John Bean Lash was Indian Agent at Muscowpetung Agency for 13 years. He wrote 13 Indian Reports, one for each year from 1885 til 1898. As a Crown agent on the front lines, J.B. was in a great position to gather information as well as influence Indigenous people. He knew the lay of the land, critical and strategic information for developers. Though brief, his reports are revealing. J.B. describes the land using map terminology like “meridian”, necessary for land speculators like cousin Zebulon Lash, pouring over maps back east in Toronto. Other agents use the word “meridian” too as if they are real estate agents.
Global recession/depression in 1895 briefly slowed many land speculators’ plans. In 1896, the entire Indian Report, available to a select few, was over 1300 pages. J.B. Lash wrote more too, skimming from topic to topic with no display of emotion,
“PIAPOT’S RESERVE, NO 75. Location and Area. – This reserve comprises township twenty and part of twenty-one, range eighteen, west of the second initial meridian, Qu’Appelle valley, and contains an area of fifty-four square miles… resources are hay and firewood… population: men, forty-eight; women, seventy-four; children, eighty-four; births three; deaths, seventeen – decrease seven. Causes of death: two from old age; four adults from consumption; four children, consumption; seven children from scrofula, consumption and inflammation of the lungs.”
“MUSCOWPETUNG’S RESERVE, NO. 80…situated on the right bank of the Qu’Appelle River at its intersection with the western boundary of section eighteen, township twenty-one, range seventeen, west of the second initial meridian.. area of fifty-eight square miles…PASQUAH’S RESERVE… on the right bank of the Qu’Appelle River, about six miles west of Fort Qu’Appelle, area of sixty square miles.”
In the 1897 IR, Lash writes about how the Indigenous people earn a living at the Muscowpetung’s Reserve on the Qu’Appelle River,
“These Indians are engaged in general farming, selling wood and hay, fishing, hunting, freighting, tanning hides, digging senega-root, trading, and working in connection with the Government herd of cattle stationed on this reserve.”
Lash continues in his high handed tone,
“These Indians are not industrious as a rule, and require close attention on the part of the farmer in charge to keep them at work. They have very little ambition…
“When practicable they gave in return for assistance given them, work of various kinds, which was supplied to keep them employed.”
The “assistance” was promised without conditions in the treaties. The Indigenous people are not paid for taking care of the Government cattle. It is slave labour or work for welfare. Is it any wonder they are reluctant to work?!
J.B. described the excellent soil on the reserves in his 1898 IR which was his last report. He noted that most of the people in his Agency were “Pagans” and “law abiding”.
With a big shakeup at Indian Affairs in 1898, agencies were redefined and more agents and clerks hired. Good colonial agent, J.B. was promoted to Secretary to Commissioner David Laird in the new Commissioner’s Office in Winnipeg.
Commish Laird, a supreme elitist, wrote a glowing and totally disingenuous report on the Industrial Schools aka IRS Indian Residential schools in the 1900 IR. The schools were THEN very controversial for a number of reasons.
“…I visited the industrial schools at St. Boniface, Middlechurch, Regina, Calgary, Qu’Appelle and Elkhorn, and was much pleased with what I saw in the provision made for the cleanliness, comfort and training of the pupils. They are all instructed in the elementary branches of an English education; some of the boys are employed at trades, others at farm work and tending stock; the girls are taught cooking, sewing and other duties calculated to make them good housekeepers. Perhaps too little attention is given in some of the schools to agriculture and stock-raising, which in this prairie country, and especially on the Indian reserves, must ever be the leading industry. The moral and religious teaching imparted at these schools is of the highest importance; and though, as with white people, and probably much more so in the Indian’s case, many lapses may occur, yet the good impressions received and habits formed must tend to raise the standard of conduct in the bands to which they belong.”
Among many questions that arise, is, “Why aren’t farming methods being taught? – it’s part of the treaties!” And the question still being asked today, “Why did so many children die in residential school?”
Laird also wrote about colonies for the ex pupils!
“…Supporting schools for our aborigines, however, is a treaty obligation and must be persevered in. But apart from the obligation, there is no other way that they can become truly civilized and cease to be a burden upon the country for much of the ordinary means of support. Not a few of the graduates who have gone out from industrial schools have obtained employment among settlers and villagers and earned moderately good wages; some have married other ex-pupils and settled down on reserves with a fair prospect of making a comfortable living for themselves; while too many are idle and shiftless, and have fallen back into the old habits of their parents and other relatives on the reserves.
“How best to guard the ex-pupils of the schools from lapsing into the barbarous ways of the band to which they belong is one of the problems with which we are confronted. To settle them in colonies apart from the reserves has been suggested; but to this scheme there is the objection that the parents of children now in most cases hostile to sending them to school, would then, with the prospect of never having them back to live with them on the reserve again, most determinedly oppose their going to school at all.
“It appears to me that a compromise of the two methods might be attempted with good results. Most of the reserves are large, and there is ample space on them to settle ex-pupils of the band some distance from the main camps on the reserve, and near the agent’s residence. Something of this kind has been tried at File Hills [by William Morris Graham], with a prospect of moderate success. I shall give this subject full consideration; and if the way seems clear for a general effort, in this direction, I feel assured the department will readily lend a helping hand.”
After the numbered treaties were signed, the “civilizing” of the Indians was not going smoothly. The agents were directed to cut costs which they did, sometimes by failing to provide promised items, sometimes by introducing inferior products such as bad meat and insect riddled flour. Inspectors were sent out to monitor the agents. There were many problems, misunderstandings and breeches of promise. “Headmen” whose names we don’t know and chiefs were regularly objecting to Agents who turned a deaf ear. They sent petitions to Ottawa demanding renegotiation and honouring of the Treaties. The Canadian government would have none of it.
As the economy began to pick up in the 20th century, the land speculators renewed their interest in the plains. Many settlers were looking for better plots of land to till. More and more people were moving in. They demanded that the Indian rez be surrendered. Anywhere that Indigenous people were doing well with farming, the settlers wanted to take over and push the Indigenous to a barren place.
Secretary J.B. Lash, now a familiar face among Indigenous people, was involved in a number of the land surrenders including Ocean Man/Pheasant Rump, Cowessess and Rosseau River.
In his younger days, Piapot gained a reputation while chief of the infamous Young Dogs who included some Nakotas/Assiniboians. This band was known for not towing the imperial line. They wanted to move into the Cypress Hills but they were routed in an attack there in 1870, many warriors being killed.
Like Mistahimuskwa and Minahikosis (Little Pine), Piapot wanted the treaties to be renegotiated to include his terms and requirements. He and his followers had not been at the Treaty 4 signing in 1874 which Piapot contended were just preliminary negotiations. He signed in 1875 but his terms were not included at that time. He also became spokesperson and lobbied Ottawa for a unified Indigenous territory.
Payipwat was careful not to resort to violence. He used his mind to strategize and manipulate the colonial system in his struggle for self determination and territorial sovereignty. In 1880, Piapot Payipwat, Cowessess [Kiwisance*], another prominent leader of the southern Cree, Foremost Man [Ne-can-nete*], a Cree chief, and the entire Nakota band requested reserves next to one another in the Cypress Hills.
Indian Commissioner Edgar Dewdney objected vehemently, fearing too much consolidation of Indigenous power. He used his Crown authority to withhold rations and of course to call in the NWMP NorthWest Mounted Police. At first, the Police Commissioner gave the starving Indians food to eat but he was ordered by Ottawa to stop. In 1883 under a police escort, Payipwat agreed to move to Indian Head.
Many of his people died from starvation that winter. In the spring, Piapot declared that he was moving to near Paskwaws reserve and that he planned a Thirst Dance there as well as a general council. With the movement for treaty renegotiation growing, Dewdney freaked and sent the Police to break it up. Troops were soon based right next to Payipwat’s reserve. The next year, the Metis “rebellion” was the excuse needed to crush resistance with force if necessary. Indigenous people were arrested as traitors.
When Piapot and his people finally got a rez to call their own, in what the colonialists called the Muscowpetung Agency, J.B. Lash was their Indian Agent.
Piapot was one of a dwindling number of Cree traditionalists who resisted the “civilizing” assimilation of the British colonialists. He saw what a scam they were running.
Now Superintendent General of Indian Affairs SGIA, Edgar Dewdney wanted to divide up Piapot’s rez into 40-acre “plots”. Piapot refused to allow the survey to go ahead. Super Diplomat Lash does not mention this in his 1889 report when he writes, “The Commissioner was present and fully explained to the Indians the advantage of having their individual farms properly located”.
Piapot continued with his Thirst Dances and Give Away Dances. He was not the only one to speak out against the failure of the Crown to follow through on its treaty promises and its imposition of impossible conditions like the pass system.
Ten years later, the new Indian Agent, John A. Mitchell reports on Piapots’ Reserve. He even provides names of the chiefs and headmen, some of whom get a gold star beside their names for “good behaviour”.
Band No. 75 –
Piapot Treaty Chief … 1875 …[there is no comment for Piapot but in 1899 he gets “good behaviour” from Mitchell]
Rock Chief Headman Appointed by Band. 1883 Good behaviour.
Oo-cha-pas-copey-aces Headman Appointed by Band. 1884 Good Behaviour.
Astum-a-pick-kaapit Headman Appointed by Band. 1885 Good Behaviour.
Musquah. Headman Appointed by Band. 1890 Good Behaviour.”
Hayter Reed, made this extremely ironic and to us, offensive comment in the 1890 IR on the “Sub-division of Reserves”. His treacherous words seethe with that patronizing tone still so prevalent among bureaucrats. More importantly, they reveal his priorities and the methodology of assimilation.
“The improvement made in various ways is very marked where the subdivision of reserves and parcelling out of lots among the individuals of the bands has been accomplished. Great hopes were always entertained as to the effect this measure would have in fostering a spirit of individualism, and they have not been disappointed.
“In the sub-division of reserves great caution had to be exercised to avoid rousing the suspicions of the Indians, who often imagine sinister motives in a manner and to an extent which those unacquainted with them could hardly credit.
“Where the step has been taken, as at some of the reserves in the Muscowpetungs, Crooked Lakes and Moose Mountain Agencies – after more or less pronounced opposition, grounded on the idea that in some way or other it was a preliminary step towards depriving them of their lands – it has been highly appreciated by the more industrious, who now feel some guarantee that their improvements will be vested in themselves and their families.”
By 1900, a new Indian Agent, the aggressive and notorious William Morris Graham was in charge. He demanded that Piapot be deposed as chief on the grounds of incompetence. Laird didn’t go for it but Graham tried again, having Piapot arrested for holding a Thirst Dance. This Ottawa accepted on April 15, 1902. No longer chief, Piapot lived another few years and died at home. He did not live to see the surrender of his reserve in 1907.
William Morris Graham’s style of dealing with the Indigenous people was very different from that of the diplomatic John B. Lash. While Lash was a pragmatist using methods of persuasion over time, Graham was a fanatic who demanded things be done his way and now. He was very unpopular among Anishnaabek. He was vociferous in his suppression of Indigenous culture. Graham especially hated the Sun Dance. He carried a set of barber’s scissors, ready at all times to cut off the locks of any Anishnaabe who would submit to this humiliation. Keep in mind, when children entered the residential schools, a first priority was to cut off their hair.
William Morris Graham was instrumental in land surrenders including Cowessess and Pasqua. He was a key player in the shocking policy of colonies for ex students. He requires more in depth scrutiny in a future article.
Land Surrenders – Who’s the Indian Giver??
After Treaties came Land Surrenders. While surrenders were taking place throughout the historical period, they intensified after the numbered Treaties were imposed on Anishnaabek. As settlers moved in, they always coveted the better land and lobbied strenuously to get it. From the frontier Crown Agents to the Fat Asses sitting in Ottawa, there was a huge number waging psychological warfare against the Indigenous who in all fairness, were not stupid but under constant attack to give up and give in.
In “First Nations Land Surrenders”, Maguire writes:
“When decisions had to be made about the authorization for a surrender, for subdivisions and for sales, the people who routinely reviewed and had access to the files were J.D. McLean, Secretary of the Department, W.A. Orr of the Lands and Timber Branch, and the Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs. On some occasions or issues the decision would be referred to the Minister. The Chief Surveyor and his staff might also be consulted, as might Accountant D.C. Scott on budgetary concerns. These same individuals had access to survey and upset price data, as might the Indian Agent, the Inspector, the auctioneer, and, of course, the field surveyor.
“McLean was in charge of sending information about sales to those making inquiries.
“The Commissioner’s Office might be asked to report on the need for a surrender, on Band response, or on sales possibilities. These reports would sometimes be prepared in conjunction with the Indian Agents and Inspectors, and sometimes by the Commissioner’s Office alone, though the Commissioner’s Office was not always kept informed of what was going on with surrenders…”
Once again, John Bean Lash was in a great position to both influence decisions and gather information for his land speculating relations that included his wife’s family, the Millers and his cousin and lawyer Zebulon Lash and HIS business buddies. As secretary, J.B. got to read everything that passed through the office, both coming and going. He was a mine of information. In 1905, he went back east for a vacation in Muskoka with his cousin, Zebulon. When J.B. died the next year, Laird acted as pall bearer and escorted his remains back east. What a cozy bunch.
In many cases, it was left to the discretion of the particular Indian agent to determine which parcel of land would be surrendered or exchanged for which other parcel of land.
Every trick in the book was being used to cheat the Indigenous people out of their lands and resources. In some communities, the population was decreasing because of starvation, depravation and infectious diseases. The Crown Agents took this as an opportunity, using the Treaties, to suggest the Original People needed less land since there were fewer of them. According to the formula in the treaties, some land could be taken back from them. The Ogimawuk objected loudly but their words fell on deaf ears.
There were dozens of large land “surrenders” often involving entire reserves, in the early twentieth century in Saskatchewan alone. Many of these shady deals led to the modern day land claims which number over 600 today. As secretary to Commissioner Laird, J. B. Lash was involved in at least 3 of them in some capacity: Ocean Man and Pheasant’s Rump aka Moose Mountain, the largest, 1901; Rosseau River, 1903 and Cowessess which was completed in 1907 after Lash died.
We have focussed on one, Ocean Man and Pheasant’s Rump, as an example of a complex and deliberately convoluted process to further defraud the Indigenous people of their lands and resources.
Ocean Man and Pheasant’s Rump aka Moose Mountain 1901 Surrenders
The “Moose Mountain sale” refers to the sale of the Ocean Man and Pheasants Rump reserves in Treaty 4 Saskatchewan.
The feeding frenzy was on. When some American speculators moved quickly to buy land, the local Liberal speculators objected because they too wanted in. The speculators would buy the land from the Crown at about $1/acre and then sell to settlers at $2 – $3/acre. The Indigenous people, Cree, Assiniboine and Saulteaux, who were forced to give up the land via these fraudulent surrenders, would receive “moving expenses”. Indian Affairs officials would receive a fee for making the sale through the Land Management Fund.
The Assiniboine or Nakota and Cree people of Ocean Man and Pheasant Rump had been successfully farming, raising their own cattle and growing their own wheat. They were being sent to “amalgamate” with the White Bear Band who were still primarily hunters.
The Assiniboine and Cree “bands would receive $28 per person … a further amount, averaging $15 per person for everyone in all three bands, was authorized for expenditures in acquiring cattle, implements, lumber, and other articles”.
It was a recipe for disaster.
The deal with the Americans was called off under pressure even though some Nebraska farmers had arrived in 1901 and the Nakota people had moved but did not get paid.
Laird sent J.B. Lash to value the land which was to be sold at an auction. Jugglers in Ottawa, Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs DSGIA James A. Smart; Secretary of Indian Affairs McLean, jumped in, seeking further changes to the program. D.C. Scott threw in his opinions. The auction was delayed again.
Smart directed the sale to go ahead by tender, preferably to one buyer. He was dodging a pack of hungry dogs seeking to cash in on favours from the Gov.
Superintendent General of Indian Affairs SGIA Clifford Sifton had his men on the ground too. Settlers at Souris, J.W. Breakey, realtor and insurance broker, and James Y. Bambridge, hardware merchant, were both Liberals and advisers to the same Clifford “Two Hats” Sifton who is also Minister of Interior. They wanted in on the deal so he intervenes. Very little advertising is done in time so that only “insiders” – like the American speculators, officials in Ottawa and their friends in Toronto – knew about the sale. Most locals lost out because they didn’t know in time. The most successful bids came in the names of 3 lawyers all known to Sifton’s Deputy Frank Pedley [who replaced Smart] and his former law partner back east, Bedford Jones.
It was a bloody scramble that inevitably led to scandal. The newspapers were full of it. Allegations were being made in Parliament and then drowned out in a clamour of indignant voices. There were many references to shady land deals involving schools, railways, timber and new town sites as well as good farmland.
Top Dog Sifton Seeks to Quell Scandal
Then Sifton, true political actor in the Theatre of Parliament, plays his mollifying role,
“…So soon as my attention was called to the fact that there were charges of irregularities in connection with the sale, steps were taken to order an investigation…under Judge Prendergast…as soon as the report is in my hands…i can assure the honourable gentleman [Conservative MP A.A.C. LaRiviÃ¨re] that everything that can be done by the department to protect the interest of bona fide buyers will be done…the first reports regarding the irregularities were very much exaggerated…”
“First of all, the Indian lands have to be surrendered to the gov. for the purposes of sale and then the gov disposes of the timber…except in special cases, public tenders are invited…There are very extensive timber lands not disposed of at all – Indian lands – and as to them WE CAN MAKE WHAT CONDITIONS WE PLEASE… ” (Emphasis added)
Sifton also declares in the House of Commons, “…There is timber upon the Moose Mountain timber reserve…not timber fit for building purposes…it is timber which supplies fuel for the population for many miles around…”
Conservative MP A.A.C. LaRiviÃ¨re again raised the question of the removal of the Indians to some more “convenient” and “profitable” place.
The Disappeared Ferguson Report
Royal Commissioner Thomas Roberts Ferguson arrived in Ottawa to begin his royal commission investigation of conflict of interest and fraud amongst top Indian Affairs officials. Borden asked him to investigate the sale, lease, grant, exchange or disposition of Dominion lands, timber, minerals and water since July 1, 1896. His report was completed and discussed in Parliament. However the report and transcripts of interviews soon went missing and have never been found.
However, the matter was well covered in the media at the time. The Ottawa Evening Journal, September 15, 1913 wrote, “The Journal learns from an authoritative source that it [Ferguson’s Report] brings to light evidence of graft in the disposal of valuable lands and resources which directly implicates several well known government officials who are in the Interior Department.”
According to FSIN Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations, the parliamentary debate [April 1915] and the newspaper articles made it clear that Ferguson had found that Smart and the two former deputy ministers of Indian Affairs had obtained most of the land in the Pheasant’s Rump and Ocean Man Reserves by manipulating the sale of the lands through the public tender system, and had had tenders submitted in the names of others so that they would not be connected with the matter.”
When the parliament buildings were destroyed by fire in February, 1916, most of the reports, documents, and papers which had been laid before parliament up to that date went up in flames.
Indigenous People Never Give Up.
In 1979, FSIN announced the results of their own investigation. They found evidence that Indian Affairs officials had collaborated to defraud the OM and PR people. They called in an RCMP forensics specialist, Roy A Huher, retired Director of the Laboratories and Identification Services Branch, to examine some documents.
“He found that the tenders were prepared on four typewriters normally employed by Frank Pedley and James A. Smart, and that Bedford-Jones had forged the signatures on those submitted for the Pheasant’s Rump and Ocean Man lands.”
In their scathing 1986 report,
“By the time Clifford Sifton left in February, 1905…Thousands of acres of land had been alienated and thrown open for settlement.
“Sifton’s [successor] Frank Oliver of Edmonton, was a man whose views were far more radical than those of his predecessor. Oliver saw little or no role for the Indian population in the development of western Canada. He believed that Indian Reserve lands “were needed by better men”.. Such surrenders were in the Indians’ “best interests… some bands could then move to “more congenial surroundings”, far removed from settlement, where their avocations of hunting and fishing could be pursued, undisturbed by white men. Their lands, which for the most part were undeveloped, could then be turned from “tax-eating to tax-paying propositions”.
“… By 1911, over 600,000 acres of Indian Reserve land in the prairie provinces had been alienated, including more than 300,000 acres in Saskatchewan alone… there would be another “surrender period” following World War I… The Canadian Government, which had often piously proclaimed the justice and enlightened nature of its Indian policy, had managed to alienate almost a third of the land set aside under treaties signed less than half a century earlier. Many bands would never recover from the economic body blow delivered by this loss of much of their prime agricultural land.”
If history lessons are important in shaping identity, nationalism and patriotism, then dismantling false history must inevitably change loyalties and perceptions.
Indian Reports dating from 1864 to 1990 are available at this link in fully searchable pdf format.
Treaty #4, 1874 Signatories: Alexander Morris, Lt Gov NWT; David Laird, Commissioner and William J. Christie. 13 chiefs & headmen put their “X” and the treaty was interpreted to them since they neither spoke nor read the English language. A week later, 3 more chiefs put their “x”. In 1875, 6 more Chiefs including Payepot and Le Croup de Pheasant put their “X” while W.J. christie, M.G. Dickieson, Commissioner and W.F. Wright signed for the Crown.
Treaty #6, 1876 Signatories: Alexander Morris, James McKay & W.J. Christie, Indian commissioners. Dozens of chiefs & headmen put their “X” to the paper. A number of adhesions followed, some signed by Laird or by Dewdney.
Many ICC Indian Claims Commission documents are available online in pdf format.
First Nation Land Surrenders on the Prairies 1896-1911, Peggy Martin-McGuire
ICCP #20 is a whopper with ref to BedfordJones and other crooks.
Cowessess First Nation 1907 Surrender Inquiry
F.S.I.N.’s Bellegarde and Sanderson Expose Fraud And Corruption In Turn Of The Century Land Surrenders
SASKATCHEWAN INDIAN JANUARY 1979 v09 n01 p02
Canada, House of Commons, Debates
Be advised! Some of the transcripts are revised and edited!!
(Note # Canada, House of Commons, Debates, February 21, 1901, 82-83). A very interesting thing about this excerpt quoted in Wright & Tyler, is that when you go to the online version of the Hansard, this page has been edited and LaRiviere’s comment does not appear.
(April 14, 1915)
Major Surrenders For Sale In Saskatchewan (to 1928)
Band # Name of Band Year Approx. Acreage
118A Big River 1919 980
76 Carry The Kettle 1905 5,760
98 Chekastapasin 1897 15,360
64 Cote 1907 10,740
64 Cote 1913 10,422
64 Cote 1914 164
64 Cote (Kamsack Townsite) 1904 242
73 Cowesses 1907 20,704
73 Cowesses 1908 350
100A Cumberland 1902 22,080
20 Cumberland House 1893 640
89 Fishing Lake 1907 13,025
Grizzly Bear’s Head/Lean Man 1905 14,400
72 Kahkewistahaw 1907 33,281
66 Keeseekoose 1909 7,600
65 Key 1909 11,775
80A Last Mn Lake(Fishing Lake) 1918 1,408
84 Little Black Bear 1928 12,408
161 Ministikwan 1916 10,279
103 Mistiwasis 1911 1,666
103 Mistawasis 1919 15,900
112 Moosomin 1909 14,729
112A Moosomin 1909 640
80 Muscowpetung 1909 17,600
102 Muskeg Lake 1919 8,960
85 Muskowequan 1920 7,485
85 Muskowequan (Lestock Townsite) 1910 160
69 Ocean Man 1901 23,680
71 Ochapowace 1919 18,333
79 Pasqua 1906 16,077
68 Pheasant’s Rump 1901 23,424
75 Piapot 1918 2,180
75 Piapot 1919 15,360
88 Poorman 1918 8,080
73A Sakimay (Little Bond/Leech Lake) 1907 6,976
101 Sturgeon Lake (exchanged) 1913 2,145
115 Thunderchild 1908 15,360
115A Thunderchild 1908 5,538
160 Wood Mountain 1919 4,960
107 Young Chipwayan (Stony Knoll) 1897 19,200
Needless to say, Laird and Lash appear in the TRC Report History pt1
ISBN 978-0-7735-4650-9 The History, Part 1 Origins to 1939 The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Canadaâ€™s Residential Schools: The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada Volume 1
p.257 J. B. Lash report
p.258 James Smart prefers day schools because they are cheaper to run
p.733 Piapot vs Principal Joseph Hugonnard, Qu’Appelle school, who insists on COMPULSORY ATTENDANCE
Special Supplement On The White Bear Land Claim Settlement
Submitted by Indian Rights and Treaties Research Program Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations March, 1986
Excerpts from the Top Dogs’ records at Indian Affairs often reveal their perceptions and methodologies of assimilation. Their biographies are available at http://biographi.ca/en/index.php
Canada, House of Commons, Debates, February 21, 1901, 82-83
Brace Yourself for Pompous Words from the Elitist Land Grabbers
Ed Dewdney SGIA, in 1890IR:
“A further proof of the advance of these Indians in the march of civilization is the adoption by so many of them of the whiteman’s dress. The Indian Commissioner in him Report states that: “Every year sees the blanket more generally discarded in favour of the settler’s garb, and more attention given to personal cleanliness.” The introduction into their homes of such employments for their wives and daughters as white women of the working class ordinarily engage in; the requirement, which in very many cases is complied with, that their houses and outside premises shall be kept in a cleanly condition, and the influence brought to bear on them to induce them to construct their houses after a modern design, which many of them now do, all contribute towards the grand end in view. The educational influences which are being brought to bear upon the young, through the medium of industrial training schools, are preparing them to become useful members of society and the founders of happy homes; and the substitution of boarding schools for day schools on reserves, where it is found feasible to make the change, will doubtless be attended with similar satisfactory results, though not in so marked a degree.”
Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs in 1907 IR
“The Indians having surrendered a portion of their reserve known as Pasqua reserve, in township 20, ranges 14, 15 and 16, W. 2nd M., to be disposed of in their interests, the same was offered for sale by public auction in quarter-sections, at Regina, on October 17, 1906. The total quantity offered for sale, amounting to 16,007.68 acres, was disposed of, and realized the sum of $214,671.47.
“The Indians of the Alexander reserve, in townships 65 and 56, R. 27, W. 4th M., having surrendered a portion thereof for disposal on their behalf, the same was subdivided into quarter-sections, and offered for sale by public auction, at Edmonton, on October 3, 1906. The total quantity offered for sale, namely, 8,549 acres, was disposed of, realizing the sum of $57,858.
In January last the Indians of Cowessess and Kakewistahaw bands, residing on reserves 73 and 72, in Crooked Lake agency, in the province of Saskatchewan, surrendered 20,704 acres of the former reserve and 33,281 acres of the latter to the Crown to be disposed of for their benefit, and a subdivision survey is now being made of the land, with a view to carrying out their wishes.
[They were actually brow beaten into signing some fraudulent documents.]
“On January 24, 1907 the Indians of the Nipissing band, living on their reserve on Lake Nipissing, surrendered to the Crown to be disposed of for their benefit, 67,651 acres of their reserve, being the portion therefore lying north of the Canadian Pacific Railway right of way. This land is now being subdivided with a view to the furtherance of the desire of the Indians.”
William Morris Graham Inspector of Indian Agencies
“The trouble in the past has been due to the fact that too many people have been dabbling in the matter. The people in the adjacent towns are keen for the surrender, and as a result, the Town Council, the Board of Trade and Individuals have been talking to the leading Indians, and they now have all kinds of ideas of [sic] their heads. In my opinion, the matter should be handled by our own people, without the knowledge of the outside public…”
p.13.list of key players
McLean, J.D., Secretary for the Dept. of Indian Affairs
Smart, James A., Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs DSGIA, July 1897 – NOvember 1902
Smith, J.W., purchased a majority of the lands in the Chakastaypasin ir 98 sale in 1901. It was later discovered by the Ferguson Commission that these tenders were submitted on behalf of DSGIA James A. smart, Supt of Immigration (and Later SGIA) Frank Pedley and Immigration Inspector Wm J. White, as represented by Toronto lawyer A.C. Bedford-Jones.